E-learning is the fastest growing learning method in developed and advanced countries. The E-learning is going to widely adopted in many other developing countries soon. The planning for effective implementation of sustainable, result oriented and quality e-learning programs needs a comprehensive understanding regarding the affects of communication technology and information on current learning and teaching practices and on higher education market, in order to find out important success factors which are necessary to be discussed in an effective e-learning policy. (Elmarie Egelbrecht, 2003)
Newer and more effective e-learning models are being developed on a continuous basis, as novel research findings. E –learning models attempt to provide the frameworks needed to deal with the concerns of learners along with the challenges being imposed by technology, so that e- learning can be made effective. Let’s have a look on some of the e-learning models.
The ADDIE model is basically a frame work that shows the generic method conventionally employed by training developers and instructional designers. (Elmarie Egelbrecht, 2003)
The word “ADDIE” is the short form of its five phase i.e.
The model shows the dynamic, adjustable guideline for structuring successful teaching and performance maintenance tools. It is an ISD (Instructional Systems Design) model. Instructional models play a significant role in devising instructional materials.
- Dick and Carey Model
Another recognized e-learning instructional design model is called The Dick and Carey Model. The model deals with instruction like a whole system, focusing on the connectedness between content, content, instruction and learning.
The components of this model include:
- Identify instructional objectives
- Conduct instructional investigation
- Examine learners and their contexts
- Write performance targets
- Develop appraisal instruments
- Develop instructional approach
- Develop and choose instructional materials
- Design and perform formative assessment of instruction
- Revise coaching
- Design and perform summative evaluation
The Minimalism theory by J.M. Carroll is a structure for the designing the instruction, especially teaching materials for e- learners. Minimalist model aims to reduce the degree to which instructional resources hinder learning and emphasizes the design on various activities that maintain learner-directed action and achievement.
- Rapid Design
E-learning has become widely adopted and rapidly since late 1990s but organizations and developers were hindered by the complexity of writing processes. It was hard and costly to design online courses just from scratch. Rapid learning, Rapid design or Rapid e-learning development has conventionally referred to a method to make e-learning courses speedily. (Karrer, T., 2006)
Rapid design mostly focuses the idea of reprocessing accessible resources such as PowerPoint presentations and converting them into different e-learning courses.
- User-centered design
Integrating User-Centered Design in an e-learning model will make sure that a product is useful, utilizable, and consequential to the user and permit for abridged development cycles.
User-Centered Design is a strategy for making experiences for learners with their desires they have in their minds. Usability is considered as the primary focus but merely one of numerous. Others incorporate usefulness, legibility, desirability, learnability, etc.
The aim of E-learning models is to spot the vital issues in the e-learning process that have to be tackled in a strategic development process for the execution of e-learning or the tuning of current e-learning initiatives.
Elmarie Egelbrecht, (2003) “A look at e-learning models: investigating their value for developing an e-learning strategy”, Progressio, Vol. 25 (2), pp. 38-47